1.Account Management 帳號管理 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  adduser Create user account 
 新增使用者帳號 
  adduser (newuser) 
  
  groupadd Create user group 
 新增群組 
  groupadd (newgroup) 
  
  groupdel Delete user group 
 刪除群組 
  group (existgroup) 
  
  passwd Change password 
 修改密碼 
  
  su Enable a user to temporarily become 
  another user. Default user is root 
 臨時登入成另一使用者,預設值是 root 
  
  useradd Create user account 
 新增使用者帳號 
  useradd (newuser) 
  
  userdel Delete user account 
 刪除使用者帳號 
  userdel (existuser) 
  
  whoami Who am I 
 檢視自己的 Login Name 
  
  2.Background Jobs 背景作業 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  % job number 
  
  & execute the command background 
  
  bg place the job from suspend to 
  background 
  
  CTRL-z interrupt a job and stop it (suspended) 
  
  fg [%n] bring the specified job number from 
  background to foreground 
  
  jobs list the jobs being run in background 
  
  kill [%n] kill the specified job number 
  
  ps list all currently running process 
  include background job 
  
  3.Basic Operation 基本操作 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  cd Stands for "change directory". Changes 
  the current working directory. If no 
  directory is specified, then the user 
  is returned to their home directory 
 切換當前目錄 
  
  cd move to home directory 
  
  cd ~ move to home directory 
  
  cd .. move one directory up 
  
  cd dirname change to a specific directory dirname 
  
  clear Clear terminal screen 
 清除螢幕 
  
  dir same as "ls" without options 
  
  ls Display Information about files and 
  directories 
 列出檔案清單 
  
  ls display information in short format 
  
  ls -l display information in long format 
  
  ls -a display information for every file 
  including hidden file in a directory 
  
  man Display online help 
 顯示線上說明文件 
  man command 
  
  pwd Report current directory 
 顯示目前的工作目錄 
  
  4.Compress & Decompress 壓縮及解壓 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  tar parameter 參數 
  
  -x expand the .tar file 
 解開 tar 檔案 
  
  -c create the tar file 
 打包成 tar 檔案 
  
  -z compress to / decompress from tar file 
 壓縮 / 解壓 
  
  -v display the output onscreen 
 顯示運作過程資訊 
  
  -f specify subdirectory and filename 
 指定子目錄與檔案 
  
  tar zxvf tarfile.tar.gz 
  Decompress the compressed tar file to specify subdirectory and filename, display the output onscreen. 
  * The first step to install application 
  
  tar zcvf tarfile.tar.gz SubD/ 
  Create a compress file, "SubD/" is the subdirectory to be compressed. 
  * Useful to backup data such as user account etc... 
  
  tar ztf tarfile.tar.gz 
  view the content of tarfile.tar.gz 
 檢視壓縮檔案內容 
  
  zip Compress Files 
 壓縮檔案 
  zip myfiles *.txt 
  
  unzip Decompress Files 
 解壓檔案 
  unzip myfiles 
  
  5.Files Management 檔案管理 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  cat Concatenates files 
 連接檔案 
  cat appendfile >> originalfile 
  
  chmod Change the permissions mode of file 
  or directory 
 改變檔案與目錄存取權限 
  chmod 755 (dirname) 
  chmod ug+rx(dirname) 
  
  cp Copy files 
 複製檔案 
  cp from-filename to-filename 
  
  du Displays the amount of space being 
  used by the specified directories or 
  files 
 查看目前目錄所佔的硬碟空間 
  
  less Similar to more but allows backward 
  movement 
 向上下翻頁顯示檔案(全螢幕) 
  less filename 
  ps | less 
  
  ln Creates a symbolic link to a files 
 建立目標檔案連結 
  ln -s originalfile linkfile 
  
  mkdir Create new directories 
 建立目錄 
  mkdir (newdirectory) 
  
  more Display file contents in full screen 
  and page by page 
 向下翻頁顯示檔案(全螢幕) 
  more (filename) 
  ps | more 
  
  mv Move files 
 搬移檔案 
  mv (filename) (targetdirectory) 
  
  rm Delete files 
 刪除檔案 
  rm (filename) 
  
  rm -r (dirname) delete directory and files recursively 
  
  rmdir Delete empty directories 
 刪除空目錄 
  rmdir (emptydirectory) 
  
  6.Filters 過濾器 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  grep Looks for patterns found in files and 
  reports when these patterns are found 
 搜尋字串 
  ps aux | grep "sendmail" 
  
  sort Sort and merge text files 
 排序 
  sort sorted.txt 
  
  tr Translates or maps characters in a 
  file from one form to another 
  tr -d \015\032 linuxfile 
  tr abc zyx 
  
  7.Login & Logout 登入及登出 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  login login 
 登入 
  
  [ctrl]+d logout and return to login screen 
 登出及返回登入畫面 
  
  logout logout and return to login screen 
 登出及返回登入畫面 
  
  exit logout and return to login screen 
 登出及返回登入畫面 
  
  su login to another user login session, 
  default user is "root" 
 登入為另一用戶 
  
  rlogin Remote Login 
 遠端登入 
  
  8.Modules 模組 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  depmod Handle dependency description for 
  loadable kernel Modules 
 處理模組間的依賴性。 
  
  modprob High level handling of loadable Modules 
 優化模組 - 裝上指定的模組及另一些沒有指 
 定,但必須用到的模組。 
  
  insmod Install loadable kernel Module 
 裝上指定的模組。 
  
  lsmod List Loaded Modules 
 列出所有裝上的模組。 
  
  rmmod Unload loadable Module 
 清除已裝上的指定模組。 
  
  lspci List all PCI devices include Mother 
  Board Chipset 
 列出所有主機板上晶片組及 PCI 介面 
  
  9.Networking 網路工具 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  finger Displays information about users on the 
  system 
 顯示使用者資料 
  finger 
  finger (username) 
  
  ifconfig Monitor and change the state of network 
  interfaces 
 查閱與設定網路介面 
  
  ifdown Disconnect ppp connection 
 解除 ppp 連線 
  ifdown ppp0 
  
  ifup Connect ppp connection 
 接駁 ppp 連線 
  ifup ppp0 
  
  netstat displays the status of network 
  connections on TCP, UDP, RAW or UNIX 
  sockets to the system 
 觀察主機與其他電腦之間的連線狀況,封包傳 
 輸等資料 
  
  nslookup Queries the DNS to return information 
  about specific hosts and networks 
 向 DNS 查詢主機與網路資訊 
  
  ping Requests packet echos from network 
  hosts 
 測試網路連接狀況 
  
  telnet To access remote computers 
 操作遠端電腦 
  
  10.Setup 設定工具 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  kbdconfig Keyboard Configuration 
 鍵盤設定程式 
  
  linuxconf Linux Configuration, text mode and X-Win 
  mode. 
  Linux 設定程式 
  
  mouseconfig Mouse Configuration 
 滑鼠設定程式 
  
  netcfg Red Hat Linux network configuration 
  tool, X-Win mode only. 
 紅帽 Linux 網路設定工具 
  
  netconf Network Configuration, text mode and X- 
  Win mode. 
 網路設定程式 
  
  ntsysv System Service 
 設定系統啟動時的執行程式 
  
  setup Setup Menu 
 設定功能表 
  
  sndconfig Soundcard Configuration 
 音效卡設定程式 
  
  timeconfig Timezone Configuration 
 時區設定程式 
  
  Xconfigurator X Window Configuration 
  X Win 設定程式 
  
  xf86config Traditional X Window Configuration 
 傳統的 X Win 設定程式 
  
  XF86Setup XFree GUI X Window Configuration 
  XFree 圖形介面 X Win 設定程式 
  
  11.System Management 系統管理 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  df Reports the amount of free disk space 
  on any currently mounted filesystem 
 顯示目前硬碟所剩空間 
  
  mount attach the device to the filesystem 
 掛上週邊設備 
  mount /dev/hdc /mnt/cdrom mount the secondary master IDE 
  CDROM to directory /mnt/cdrom 
  
  mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy mount the floppy disk A to 
  directory /mnt/floppy 
  
  mount /mnt/cdrom mount the CDROM to 
  directory /mnt/cdrom 
  
  mount /mnt/floppy mount the floppy disk to 
  directory /mnt/floppy 
  
  mount display the mounted device 
  information 
  
  umount detach the device from the 
  filesystem 
 卸下週邊設備 
  umount /mnt/cdrom 
  umount /mnt/floppy 
  
  12.System Shutdown & Restart 系統關閉及重新啟動 
  
  Command Description, Syntax & Example 
 指令 解說、語法及例子 
  
  reboot Reboot the system now 
 立即重新啟動系統 
  
  init 6 Reboot the system now 
 立即重新啟動系統 
  
  [ctrl]+[alt]+[del] Reboot the system now 
 立即重新啟動系統 
  
  halt Halt the system now 
 立即關閉系統 
  
  shutdown Shutdown the System 
 關閉系統 
  parameter 參數 
  -r Reboot the system when the shutdown is 
  complete 
  -h Halt the system when the shutdown is 
  complete 
  
  shutdown -r now Reboot the system now 
  
  shutdown -h now Halt the system from now 
  
  shutdown -r +15 Reboot the system after 15 minutes from 
  now 
  
  shutdown -h +15 Halt the system after 15 minutes from 
  now 
  
  shutdown -r 23:00 Reboot the system on 11 p.m 
  
  shutdown -h 23:00 Halt the system on 11 p.m 
  
 如何使 CTRL+ALT+DEL 失效? 
 避免任何人都可以關機,請修改檔案 /etc/inittab , 找尋下列句子: 
  # Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE 
  ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now改為#ca::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t3 -r now 
 只准 root 登入 
 在 /etc 目錄內建立一文字檔案名 nologin ,內容隨意。只要系統發現此檔案存在,就會禁止其他使用者登入,並且會顯示 
nologin 檔的內容。 
 如何讓 Linux 以單人模式開機? 
 原因:當系統發生問題時,必須以單人模式進入,以便修復系統。 
 在命令模式下執行: 
  telinit 1 
 或在 boot prompt 時,鍵入: 
  linux single 
 如何可以重看開機時一大堆訊息? 
 在命令模式下執行: 
  dmesg | less 
 如何可以在開機時自動掛上光碟機? 
 假設光碟機是 Secondary Master IDE CDROM hdc , 修改檔案 /etc/fstab,加入以下一行: 
  /dev/hdc /mnt/cdrom iso9660 default 1 0 
 如要換光碟片,必須先 umount ,光碟片才能退出光碟機,執行: 
  umount /mnt/cdrom 
 換光碟片後,必須手動重新掛上光碟機,執行: 
  mount -t iso9660 /dev/hdc /mnt/cdrom
 
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